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Futility Closet

Feb 1, 2016

In 1982, college sophomore Gregory Watson got a C on a term paper arguing that a long-forgotten constitutional amendment could still be ratified. In this week's episode of the Futility Closet podcast we'll follow his 10-year mission to prove his professor wrong and get the amendment added to the Constitution.

We'll also learn an underhanded way to win a poetry contest and puzzle over how someone can murder a corpse.

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This week's feature on the 27th amendment was suggested by listener Steve Winters. Sources:

Richard B. Bernstein, "The Sleeper Wakes: The History and Legacy of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment," Fordham Law Review 61:3, 497-557.

John Heltman, "27th Amendment or Bust," American Prospect, May 30, 2012.

"Historical Highlights: The 27th Amendment," History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).

"Amendment XXVII: Congressional Compensation," National Constitution Center (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).

Richard L. Berke, "1789 Amendment Is Ratified But Now the Debate Begins," New York Times, May 8, 1992.

Richard L. Berke, "Congress Backs 27th Amendment," New York Times, May 21, 1992.

"Alumni Notes," The Alcalde, September-October 1992.

Here's a video interview with Gregory Watson.

Sources for our feature on underhanded poetry:

"Anecdote Relative to Mr. Dryden," The Gentleman's and London Magazine, August 1763.

William Montgomery Clemens, Mark Twain, His Life and Work: A Biographical Sketch, 1892.

This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener David Elliott, who sent this corroborating link (warning -- this spoils the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or via the RSS feed at

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at Thanks for listening!